When a kitten or puppy is taken away from his family, he will be lonely for his brothers and sisters, and for his mother.
He will need to be cuddled and treated gently, to be protected from noise and confusion by his new family, as he gradually becomes acquainted with them.
When he first arrives, try to feed him some warm milk. After that feed him frequently and lightly.
The first ten days are the most difficult for both pet and owner. Since most animals are creatures of habit, your pet should be kept on a fairly rigid schedule suitable to both his needs and your family’s.
Best Age to Get a Puppy or Kitten
The best age for taking a puppy from the litter is between 6 and 8 weeks, 7 weeks being ideal. This gives him enough time to socialize with his littermates and to be introduced to his new pack or family. Cats are not pack animals but, as with puppies, 7 weeks is a suitable age.
Give your puppy or kitten a few days to adjust to you and to its new surroundings and watch out for any obvious signs of trouble. Then take it to the vet for a general examination, a worm check, and a vaccination. Young puppies and kittens are fragile and tire easily. Over-handling or abuse by young children must be avoided.
The two main diseases which are fatal to dogs and should be vaccinated against are distemper and hepatitis. The only dangerous disease fatal to cats that requires vaccination is feline enteritis. Dogs can be given a temporary vaccination as early as 6 weeks, with the permanent vaccination given at around 10 – 12 weeks. Kittens can be permanently vaccinated at 6 weeks of age.
Booster vaccinations may be necessary for animals that lead isolated lives, seldom coming into contact with other disease-carrying animals which would stimulate their defense mechanisms. For these pets – living in apartments, for instance – annual booster vaccinations until they are from 5 to 7 years old will maintain an immunity that will last for the rest of their lives.
Best Foods for Dogs and Cats
Of the three main needs in the diet – protein, carbohydrates, and fats – protein is the most important for both growing puppies and kittens.
New puppies should have 3 to 4 meals a day of such things as milk, cereals, and baby-type foods, with a gradual introduction of finely chopped meat.
They should also have regular vitamin, mineral, and calcium supplements up to 12 months of age while the skeleton is forming. Variety is important at this stage so introduce vegetables, boiled rice, offal, and the various types of meat – chicken, rabbit, mutton.
During the first week or two at home, kittens should be fed on a slightly warmed milk and cereal mixture, strained baby meat, vitamins, minerals, and calcium powder. Gradually add a variety of minced meat to the mixture, plus occasional eggs, cheese, and small quantities of vegetables or cereals.
Variety is particularly important with cats’ diets because cats tend to become very selective eaters and if they are not introduced to a varied diet as young kittens they will always be selective and restrictive in their food intake.
As the cat grows up, include larger chunks of meat or fish so that it may clean and strengthen its teeth as it chews. A lot of veterinary work is done on cat’s teeth because they have been traditionally fed soft, mushy foods.
From three to four meals a day at 6 weeks, dogs and cats usually reduce their own food intake until, by 12 months, they eat just one meal a day. Ideally, this should be in the morning for energy.
Nutritionally, there is no difference between raw and cooked meat. For the sake of their teeth and gums, both cats and dogs should be given non-splintering bones. Brisket bones are ideal.
Avoid rabbit or chicken carcasses that have many small bones and avoid pressure-cooked or boiled bones which can cause constipation. Bones should never be counted as part of your pet’s nutritional diet.
Fat is an energy source and aids digestion so regularly include a small amount of fatty meat. Vegetable oils are a good way of adding fat.
Canned pet foods can be a false economy if fed as the pet’s sole diet as they have a high water content – sometimes as much as 80 percent – and an animal fed on nothing but canned foods of this type can be actually starving.
Dry and semi-moist pet foods are all good nutritionally and make a useful addition to meat or fish dishes. But be careful not to feed an adult cat on too high a content of dried foods as there is a definite relation between dry food and urinary trouble in cats.
In general, a combination of dried, canned, and fresh foods is probably the best diet for your pet.
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It’s not easy to generalize. Toilet training is a process of conditioning, more of a problem in dogs than in cats since cats are basically very clean creatures.
The times that young puppies want to go to the toilet are the same times as young babies: after eating and on waking up.
These are the times when the owner should concentrate on training the puppy by taking it to the place where he wants it to relieve itself and, when it does, praising and making a great fuss of it.
When it relieves itself in the wrong place the owner should criticize it and then take it, with encouragement, to the place where it is supposed to go. Rubbing an animal’s nose in its own excretions is primitive, humiliating, and pointless.
Dogs and cats get four main internal parasites: Roundworms, Tapeworms, Hookworms, and Whipworms.
Your pet is most susceptible to worm infestation during the first 12 months of its life and this is when owners should pay special attention to the problem. Rather than routine or sporadic administration of worm dosing, the best solution is to regularly drop a sample of the pet’s feces into the vet for checking.
Vets charge a very small fee for this service. Then the animal is treated accordingly, avoiding unnecessary or inappropriate dosing.
A rough guide for checking your puppy or kitten for worms is to check as early as 3 weeks, then check weekly up to 6 weeks, then make monthly checks until they are about 6 months old, then further checks at 9 and 12 months.
Fleas are the intermediate hosts of the common tapeworm so, in addition to tapeworm tablets, control of fleas is important in eliminating the tapeworm.
The hydatid tapeworm (which, along with the roundworm, is the only internal parasite considered a major public health risk connected with pets) is related to sheep and only occurs in sheep-raising areas.
The common tapeworm cannot be transmitted to humans. The number of children suffering from roundworm larval infestation is very small but of course, precautions should be taken. The larvae of the hookworm can penetrate the skin of human feet but this is very rare.
One of the two main reasons for having a female dog or cat desexed is the nuisance value. Bitches come on heat usually twice a year for two or three weeks while unspayed female cats come into season much more regularly, particularly in spring and summer.
A second and equally valid reason for spaying female pets is the elimination of what, in humans, we call “women’s troubles” in later life – diseases of the sexual organs such as breast diseases and cancer of the uterus which are quite common in dogs and cats.
Dogs and cats become sexually mature at about four and a half to five months and this is an ideal age for spaying. The main fallacies regarding the spaying of female dogs and cats are that they put on weight, have a change of personality, and suffer from never having had a litter.
None of these things is true. However, a dog or cat which has had one or more litters may still be desexed, although the operation at that stage is a much bigger one, more expensive, more uncomfortable and the animal takes longer to recover.
The two main reasons for neutering male cats and dogs are over-aggression and over-sexual behavior. Provided castration is done while the animal is young – before its masculine traits have become habitual – it usually eliminates these problems.
There is a very strong case for neutering male cats. It stops them from spraying bad-smelling urine, keeps them at home, and stops them from fighting other cats. Vets see a great number of fight wounds and abscesses in unneutered male cats.
Regular grooming for long-haired pets is essential – most particularly for long-haired cats whose fur can get so matted from neglect that vets have to anesthetize the cat before clipping away the fur.
Long-haired dogs such as the collie and the Old English sheepdog should be groomed for 5 to 10 minutes daily and clipped in summer for their own comfort. Short-haired dogs should be groomed after their weekly bath, short-haired cats once or twice a week.
Dogs, particularly, should be bathed once a week in summer, less often in the cooler months.
In hot summers – especially when there is a high degree of humidity as well – regular bathing once a week is essential for the control of fleas and ticks and for general skincare. A great number of skin diseases such as eczema and dermatitis which occur in dogs and cats are mainly related to heat and humidity.
Another fallacy is that cats cannot be bathed. A lot of cats are difficult to handle and get very upset at being bathed but there is no reason why a cat should not be given a monthly insecticidal shampoo in summer. Preparations such as malathion are safe for cats.
Flea and Tick Control
Fleas are a major problem during the summer and ticks claim many pets’ lives each year.
The best way to control fleas and ticks is to apply a topical treatment such as Advantix or to bathe your pet first with a shampoo, rinse this off, then apply an insecticidal rinse, saturating the coat. Let this dry on the coat, do not rinse it off. Add a flea collar and your pet will have effective protection.
Flea powders are usually only partially effective. On long-haired pets such as collies and Persians, they have very little effect because they cannot saturate the long coat. The oral-systemic tablets and drops are very effective but they have a limited use in that they remain in the bloodstream for only 8 hours or so.
Daily inspection for ticks in the animal’s coat is vital if you live in a tick-infested area. Run your hands over your pet’s coat, particularly around the head and neck (take the collar off), between the toes, in the ears, around the anus, along the tail – in all the awkward places where the tick might lodge.
Ticks take four days to engorge themselves on the animal’s blood before reaching their full size (equivalent to a split pea) and producing their toxin. Fortunately, there is an antidote for this toxin but it is expensive and must be given in the early stages if it is to be effective.
People who wish to save their pets from distress from tick infestation should be on the watch for the earliest signs of tick paralysis. These are a slight staggering or swaying of the hindquarters of the animal.
If the symptoms have progressed beyond the preliminary stage, it is best to obtain the services of a veterinary surgeon who has available for use drugs which can assist in recovery. The best treatment, of course, is the injection of anti-tick serum.
The best way to keep pets from showing symptoms of a tick infestation is to prevent the ticks from attaching themselves to the animal. The insecticides can assist in this if they are used as a weekly wash. Precaution must be taken when using DDT or BHC for cats, as both insecticides are toxic to these animals.
With cats, it is preferable to use a dusting powder. This should be well worked into the coat and not merely sprinkled on the surface. After the dust has been worked in, the excess should be removed with a light brushing. Rain or wetting the animal will result in the removal of much of the insecticide and will reduce its effectiveness.
These insecticides are not completely successful, however, so that prevention by frequent searching of the animals is better than relying wholly on them.
The search should be carried out at intervals not greater than two days, otherwise, symptoms of tick paralysis can occur if a tick attaches immediately after the previous inspection or is missed in the search. Ticks usually attach for upwards of three days before any symptoms develop.
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Dogs are subject to four different kinds of mange, but as each kind is caused by a particular type of mite burrowing into or puncturing the skin, the treatment in all cases should be aimed at the mites.
Sarcoptic mange may attack man and many of the domestic and wild animals including the fox and wombat, but as the mites seem to prefer a particular species of the host the spread from one species to another is not rapid or easy.
In dogs, the disease may begin on any part of the body, but usually on the elbows and hocks, causing the dog to scratch continually. The hair may or may not fall out. There is usually a marked loss of condition. Spread from dog to dog is rapid.
Demodectic mange usually begins with a falling of the hair around the eyes, producing a spectacled appearance. It may occur all over the body, producing a shiny, hairless skin without much irritation.
It is usually confined to dogs under a year old and attacks mainly the short-haired breeds. The disease runs a slow course and is accompanied by a mousy smell. It may end fatally if not treated.
A veterinary surgeon would probably diagnose the trouble and advise appropriate treatment immediately, but if no vet is available some home treatment can be tried.
Pet’s Teeth and Nails
Cats’ teeth should be checked regularly – at least once a year – for tartar which if left, can cause several kinds of gum and teeth problems. Dogs’ teeth should always be checked when the dog is taken to the vet for a routine check.
Dogs who run on concrete should never need to have their nails clipped but dogs who run on grass and carpet may have to – two or three times a year. Cats’ claws shouldn’t need clipping. If your cat scratches the furniture provide it with its own scratching post.
Coughing and gagging
Coughing and vomiting are not a disease, but only a sign of disease. It may be a symptom of distemper or gastritis. Most dogs seem to eat grass occasionally, and this is followed by coughing and vomiting. Some dogs do this on an empty stomach when nothing but froth is vomited.
In most dogs’ diseases, coughing and vomiting may occur. The trouble may respond to dosage with milk of bismuth, one teaspoonful is given three times a day; also light, sloppy foods, such as milk, should be given. Give small feeds, little and often. When persisting cough and vomiting occurs, it is advisable to consult a veterinary surgeon.
Dogs like other animals sometimes suffer from the ill effects of a bone or some foreign body becoming lodged either at the entrance to the throat or along the course of the gullet, whilst the pressure of an abnormal growth in juxtaposition to the gullet may cause symptoms of choking and impeded respiration.
If the owner suspects choking by a fishbone etc. he should immediately examine the back part of the mouth and remove the obstruction with his fingers. Failing that the throat brush must be passed down the gullet whilst the mouth is kept open with a gag.
Sometimes a teaspoonful of glycerine or oil will facilitate the removal of the obstruction. In every case especially if the symptoms are urgent, professional advice should be obtained.
As dogs and cats are usually confined to their own neighborhoods, an outbreak of an infectious disease can remain localized for some time.
Factors encouraging the spread of disease include boarding dogs and cats at holiday times, taking pets to dog shows or buying young animals incubating the disease and taking them to other areas.
There are two diseases that seem fairly localized at the moment but could spread further with the upcoming school holidays.
There is a small outbreak of an infectious respiratory disease commonly called kennel cough. This is certainly not a life-threatening condition although some dogs can become quite sick. It is highly infectious, only requiring an affected dog to cough in the vicinity of another. The incubation period is about five to seven days.
The first signs are not dramatic.
- The dog may give only an occasional cough as if to clear its throat after drinking water.
- Gradually the frequency of coughing increases until any exertion or excitement precipitates a prolonged bout.
- The dog continues to eat normally at first, but if the coughing becomes very frequent, its throat becomes inflamed and it will refuse solid food, preferring to drink.
Some dogs throw off the disease within a few days without treatment, but if the coughing is very pronounced or in very young or old dogs, it is probably wise to seek the advice of your veterinary surgeon.
The cause is probably a combination of a virus, which is related to the organism that causes canine hepatitis, and some bacteria. Antibiotics are of value only to limit serious secondary bacterial infection as they have no effect on the virus.
Some relief is gained from substances that reduce the inflammatory reaction in the tissues of the throat and trachea and help to reduce the frequency of coughing. The dog should be kept as quiet as possible and not exercised until the tendency to cough has disappeared.
Modern distemper and hepatitis vaccines contain a fraction which should help to protect the dog against the virus component of the disease.
Ringworm in kittens is a skin infection which causes the animal little discomfort. It is highly infectious to other kittens, to dogs and to humans.
The cause is a fungus which attacks the outer layers of the skin and the shafts of hair. Fungal spores develop at these sites and fall onto chairs, carpets and clothes, and can remain infective for a very long time.
Most human infections involve children as they probably handle the infected kittens the most. Irritating red marks develop on the skin of the face, forearms, and legs and occur most readily where there has been some friction or scratch to embed the spore into the deeper layers of the skin.
The disease is sometimes difficult to detect in cats. In most cases, some loss or breaking of the hair shafts can be detected on the face, legs, or feet and the skin may appear more raised. In other cases, a diffuse form affects a few hair follicles or small skin patches and does not produce any distinct patches.
Veterinary surgeons make use of an unusual property of the fungus that is the cause of the majority of ringworm infections in the cat. Under ultraviolet light, the affected areas emit a greenish fluorescence.
Treatment is successful but must be thorough and carried out till all signs of the infection have disappeared. Veterinary surgeons usually prescribe a tablet containing Griseofulvin which renders the hair and skin resistant to the effects of the fungus.
The treatment must be carried out for about four weeks and is combined usually with a non-toxic wash which helps to stop the spread of the organism while the resistant hair shafts are growing.
When looking for a new kitten, treat strays or kittens acquired from fetes and markets with suspicion. It is a wise precaution to have them examined by a veterinary surgeon before letting them loose on the furniture or allowing the children to handle them freely.
First aid in poisoning
Success in the treatment of cases of poisoning depends largely on prompt action. This may save an animal’s life when delay would mean death.
With few exceptions, the first aim is to rid the animal of the toxic substance. This is usually done by causing vomiting if possible.
If the animal poisoned, or even suspected of being poisoned, is made to vomit then the stomach is emptied of the dangerous material and hence any further absorption of the poison into the bloodstream is prevented.
Vomiting may be induced by making the animal swallow solutions of mustard in water or salt in water or, in an emergency, by swinging it around by the legs to induce giddiness and nausea.
Such steps are useful only for small animals such as cats and dogs in which vomiting is fairly easily induced.
Where possible a veterinary surgeon should be called as the injection of certain drugs, particularly derivatives of morphine, are very effective in inducing vomiting.
The second step is to protect the stomach and intestinal lining and also to delay the absorption of the poison remaining. This is best done by giving egg white, milk, oils and gruels.
Where phosphorous poisoning is suspected oils and fats should not be given as they increase the absorption rate.
The next step is to provide warmth and quietness. In all cases of poisoning, there is a quite severe shock which leads to loss of body temperature and therefore it is most important that the animal be kept warm and rested.
Any action beyond these three steps depends on specific antidotes for the poison taken.
Arsenic is countered by the administration of sodium hyposulphite (‘hypo’) or freshly made solutions of iron peroxide; strychnine by powerful sedatives to reduce the nervous convulsions; caustics, such as caustic soda, by giving vinegar or lemon juice which are acid and therefore neutralize the caustic.
Unfortunately, such poisons as prussic acid act so rapidly that death occurs within a few seconds and therefore any line of treatment is virtually useless.